RITES OF HAJJ AT-TAMATTU
1. Upon completion of Umrah, it is obligatory for the
mukallaf to get into the state of ihram for Hajj at-Tamattu'.
2. If he makes niyyah for Hajj at-Tamattu' and pronounces
the wajib labbayks (as already mentioned in the part on ihram for Umrah), he would become
a Muhrim and does not need to make the intention for ihram and for abstaining from the
muharramat. He should not make the intention of doing anything that would invalidate the
ihram. 3. Niyyah should be pure and sincere to satisfy Almighty Allah. Hypocrisy would
invalidate the Hajj at-Tamattu'.
4. Getting into the state of ihram and pronouncing labbayk
is the same as mentioned in regard to ihram for Umrah.
5. Everything presented as muharramat for ihram is also
Haram in the ihram for Hajj at-Tamattu'. Likewise, all which required kaffarah there would
also need kaffarah in the Hajj at-Tamattu'.
6. Time is ample for ihram. The pilgrim can delay it so
long as he still has time for ikhtiyari Wuquf in 'Arafah after ihram. He cannot delay it
7. 1hram for Hajj should be done in any part of Makkah,
even in the newly built districts. Nevertheless, ihram in the Masjid al-Haram is afdhal.
8. The same precept which applies to one who has not got
into the state of ihram due to forgetfulness applies to the person who fails to have ihram
due to unawareness.
8. Hajj will be invalidated if a person knowingly and
intentionally postpones ihram until the time for Wuquf in 'Arafat
and Mash'ar is over.
QUESTION 1: The distance between some newly-built
districts of Makkah and the Masjid al-Haram is more than 18 kilometers. These might
conventionally be deemed as suburbs of Makkah, not as parts of it, since traffic signs
indicate the direction of Makkah. Is it then possible to become Muhrim f o r Hajj at the
ANSWER: There is no problem if they are the
districts of Makkah. But if they are not Makkah's districts or if there is doubt about
this, the pilgrim should avoid becoming a Muhrim at these sites.
WUQUF IN 'ARAFAT
1. Wuquf is obligatory in 'Arafat-
which is a famous place with commonly known bounds---with pure intention, as is the case
of other acts of worship.
2. Based on the ahwat, Wuquf in 'Arafat should commence ~t the zawal until maghreb. The
pilgrim might be allowed delay from the. zawal to recite the zuhr and , ASR prayers and
make the preliminaries.
3. It is obligatory to be in 'Arafat from midday until sunset on the same day. But as
already indicated, this is not entirely rukn to invalidate the Hajj if abandoned.
Therefore, if the pilgrim engages in a brief Wuquf, departs, and returns in the afternoon
for Wuquf, his Hajj will be correct, even if he deliberately and knowingly abstains from
4. Mere presence in 'Arafat
is the rukn for Wuquf. This presence might be very brief such as one minute or two;
therefore, if one does not at all go to 'Arafat, he
has abstained from a rukn.
4. If one intentionally and knowingly dispenses with the
rukni Wuquf (namely if he does not have any presence in 'Arafat
from midday until sunset), his Hajj will be invalidated.
6. If he deliberately departs from 'Arafat before sunset and leaves its precincts, he has
committed a Haram act. If he becomes repentant, returns, and engages in Wuquf until
sunset, he will not have to embark upon compensation.
7. If, however, he does not return, he should offer a
camel as kaffarah to be sacrificed in the way of Almighty Allah at any place. Based on
ihtiyat mustahabb (recommended precaution), he should sacrifice the camel in Mina and on
the day of Eid al-Urban and his Hail will be correct. If this is beyond his means, he
should fast for 18 days.
8. If he mistakenly leaves 'Arafat,
he should return before the time expires. if he realizes his mistake but does not return,
he will be a sinner, yet he does not have to pay kaffarah. If he does not realize his
mistake until the time expires, he does not have to offer kaffarah.
9. The same decree applies whom leaves 'Arafat due to ignorance.
10. Realization of the obligatory stay (wajib Wuquf) and
not the rukni Wuquf is the standard to measure the time for Wuquf in 'Arafat which converts the Hajj.
IN MASHAR AL-HARAM
1. After completing Wuquf in 'Arafat when the sun sets on the 9th of Dhu'l Hijjah, the
pilgrim should go the Mash'ar al-Haram which is a well-known place with specific limits.
2. After leaving 'Arafat,
based on precaution, he should spend the night preceding the Eid al-Qurban until daybreak
of the Eid in the Mash'ar al-Haram with the intention of submitting to the will of
Almighty Allah in spending the night there.
3. In the morning of Eid al-Qurban, he should make niyyah
for Wuquf in the Mash'ar al-Haram until sunrise. This is the extent of wajib Wuquf. As
this Wuquf is an act of worship for Almighty Allah, it should be based on sincere niyyah
without engaging in hypocrisy and show-off.
4. Those having excuses---such as women, children, the
ailing people, old men, the physically weak and those who need nurses and guides---can
leave the Mash'ar al-Haram for Mina after some halt in the Mash'ar at night.
T OF MINA (OBLIGATIONS OF MINA)
First. Ramy of Jamarat al- Aqaba refers to throwing
pebbles at the symbolic satans which are located in Mina.
1. The pilgrim should use pebbles for ramy,. These should
not be very small such as gravel. nor should they be very large. The pebbles should be of
stone not of other material like clod, potsherd, and gems. However. different types of
stones, even marble, can be used.
2. The pebbles should belong to the Mash'ar al-Haram, and
those outside the .Mash'ar are not acceptable.
2. The pebbles must be new, that is to say they should not
have been used for ramy in the past years.
4. The pebbles must be mubah; therefore, usurped pebbles
or those procured by others for personal use are not sufficient.
5. Ramy should be done from sunrise until sunset of the
day of Eid al-Qurban. If the pilgrim forgets to perform the ramy on this day, he can carry
it out until the 13th. If he cannot carry it out by then, he should, based on necessary
precaution, carry it out in person or through deputation. The following year, he or his
na'ib should perform its qadha.
6. Several things are obligatory in ramy:
a. Niyyah which should be sincere without hypocrisy or
show-off, both of which invalidate the ramy.
b. The pebbles should be thrown. Going close to the
jamarah and placing the pebbles on it would not be sufficient.
c. The pebbles, being thrown, should hit the jamarah.
d. Each ramy must be carried out using seven pebbles.
e. The pebbles should be gradually and consecutively
thrown. In this case, there would be no problem if they hit the jamarah at the same time.
But all or a few of the pebbles should not be thrown at the same time, even if they
consecutively rather than simultaneously hit the jamarah.
1. If the pilgrim throws a pebble but does not hit the
jamarah, he should throw it anew, even though at the time of ramy he conceived that the
pebbles had hit the jamarah. Therefore, if there are other things installed close to the
jamarah and he has mistakenly thrown the pebbles at them, the ramy should be repeated,
even if next year and by the pilgrim's na'ib.
2. Those who have excuses not to engage in ramy during the
day can perform it anytime at night.
Second: Dhibh is obligatory in Mina.
1. One who performs the Hajj at-Tamattu' should offer a
hady (i.e. a camel or a cow, or a sheep) for Dhibh. Camel is preferable.
2. Apart from the aforementioned three animals, other
animals do not meet the requirements of Dhibh.
3. Several points apply to the hady: a. it should be free
of any defect b. it should have all bodily organs c. its inner horn should not be broken
d. it should not be thin e. it should not be castrated
4. It is not a condition for the hady to have unmutilated
testicles, unless it reaches the point of castration All bodily organs such as testicles
and ears or horns and tail which are natural to the relevant animals should be found in
the hady; otherwise, it would be regarded as defective. The hady does not have to be
5. If the hady is a camel, it should have entered its
sixth year. If the hady is a cow. based on necessary precaution, it should have entered
its third year. The same applies to a 2oat. Based on necessary precaution, an ewe should
have entered its second year.
6. Dhibh should be per after ramy jamarah.
7. Based on necessary precaution, Dhibh of hady should be
performed on the day of Eid al-Qurban and not afterwards.
8. If due to an excuse---such as forgetfulness or
others---he forgets to perform the Dhibh on the day of Eid al-Qurban, he should, based on
necessary precaution, engage in Dhibh during the tashriq period. If not possible, Dhibh
should be carried out in the remaining days of the month of Dhul Hijjah.
9. If the pilgrim engages in Dhibh of a hady which he
conceives to be sound and healthy and later realizes that it was sick or names (defective
or having some bodily deficiencies) his Dhibh will not suffice and he has to do it all
over again if he can afford it.
10. Based on necessary precaution, the na'ib for Dhibh
should be a Shi'ite, unless the pilgrim himself makes the niyyah f o r Dhibh and hires a
na'ib only to perform the Dhibh.
11. Dhibh is also an act of worship and entails pure
niyyah to submit to the will of Almighty Allah.
SECONDARY ISSUES RELATED TO
1. It is not permissible to deliberately delay the Dhibh
until after the day of Eid al-Qurban, unless there is an ahwat. But if the pilgrim
intentionally, unknowingly, or mistakenly delays it, he should offer the Dhibh during the
2. Based on precaution, the person who has accepted the
niyabah of the mukallaf should personally conduct the Dhibh.
3. Under the present conditions, offering the sacrifice at
the new places for slaughter is correct and permissible.
4. If a man offers the Dhibh on behalf of his wife or
another person without having their wikalah and supposing to have implicit permission from
them, the Dhibh will not be correct. Based on necessary precaution, he should not suffice
with the Dhibh of the na'ib if prior permission has not been obtained from the one who
hired the na'ib.
5. Iron and stainless steel (knives) should be used for
Dhibh. If the pilgrim doubts whether the knife or other instruments are made of iron or
not, he should come to a certainty (and then perform the Dhibh).
QUESTION 1: What duty is shouldered by a person who
has given his sheep to a non-believer for Dhibh and who has performed Halq and other
subsequent rites and then realised that a non-believer has conducted Dhibh for him?
ANSWER: There is no need to perform Dhibh all over
again if the na'ib is hired for the mere practice of Dhibh. But if the na'ib had niyabah
for both the practice of the Dhibh and the niyyah for Dhibh, it should be performed all
over again. Then Halq and other subsequent rites will be correct.
QUESTION 2: What happens if a person mistakenly,
unintentionally, or unknowingly fails to observe the specific order of the rites of the
day of Eid al-Qurban?
ANSWER: It is obligatory to observe the specified
order of the Mina rites. This order cannot be intentionally abandoned. If, however, one
had not followed the order, obviously it is not obligatory for him to repeat the rites he
had performed without observing order. But order should be observed based on precaution.
QUESTION 3: What should be done if after Dhibh and
before or after completing the remaining Hajj rites, the pilgrim realizes that the age of
the hady was less than required?
ANSWER: He should offer Dhibh anew.
Third: Taqsir is obligatory in Mina.
1. After Dhibh. each mukallaf has the choice to either
shave his head or shorten his, nail or hair.
2. Women should cut some locks of their hair or clip nails
and should not ,have their heads. Based on the ahwat, women should both clip their nails
and cut some locks of their hair.
3. One who has gone on Hajj for the first time has the
choice to either shave his head or perform taqsir. But based on the ahwat complete shaving
of the head (Halq) should he carried out,
4. Shaving the head and Taqsir, being acts of worship,
should be carried out with pure intention to submit to the Will of almighty Allah. They
would not be correct without pure intention and in such a case they would not make halal
(permissible things which' normally become halal after such acts.
5. Shaving the head and Taqsir should be carried out in
Mina and it is not permissible to voluntarily perform them elsewhere.
6. Based on precaution, the head should be shaved and
Taqsir should be performed on the day of the Eid, even though the pilgrim might be allowed
to delay them until the end of the tashriq period-
7. In Mina, it is obligatory to primarily engage in ramy
jamarah, then Dhibh, and then Taqsir or Halq.
8. If the pilgrim does not observe the required order (of
the Hajj rites), he has committed a sin. But obviously, he does not have to repeat those
rites whose orders he has not observed, though their repetition would be in accordance
SECONDARY ISSUES RELATED TO
HALQ OR TAQSIR IN HAJJ
1. Based on necessary precaution. Halq or Taqsir should
not be postponed until the night. If the pilgrim fails or forgets to perform them on the
day of the Eid, he should carry them out on the night of the 11th of Dhul Hijjah.
And this would suffice.
2. One who wants to shave the head of another person
cannot do so before he performs his own Halq or Taqsir. Removing the hair of another
person is not permissible until one obtains relief from ihram.
3. One who has conducted Halq in a place other than Mina
and performed the subsequent rites has not become a muhill and should perform the
subsequent rites all over again.
4. One who has, for some reason, postponed Dhibh to after
the Eid does not have to delay Halq or Taqsir. Based on precaution, Halq and Taqsir should
be performed on the day of the Eid. But the tawaf al-Hail would be invalid if performed
before Halq or Taqsir. QUESTION 1: Would rites of Makkah be correct for those who came to
Makkah after performing Halq and Taqsir, carried out Makkah rites such as Tawaf, sa'y, and
tawaf an-nisa and then realised that their Halq a n d Taqsir was not carried out in Mina?
ANSWER: In such a case, their Makkah rites are incorrect and should be performed all over
THE OBLIGATIONS AFTER THE
RITES OF MINA
1. Rites which are obligatory to be performed in Makkah:
a. Tawaf al-Hail known as tawaf b. tawaf prayer c. sa'y between Safa and Marwah d. tawaf
an-nisa e. Prayer of tawaf an-nisa
2. The tawaf al-Hajj, its prayer, sa'y. tawaf an-nisa and
its prayer should he performed exactly as already indicated in the part of tawaf al-'Umrah
and its prayer and sa'y. Only the niyyah would be different here. The pilgrim has to make
niyyah f o r tawaf al-Hajj, it sa'y and tawaf an-nisa.
3. If Mina rites are performed in `dvance due to excuses,
they would suffice, unless the excuses become invalid later. For instance, a woman (who
thought her monthly period would start) does not become haidh, a sick person
recovers, and overcrowding is not as such to cause annoyance. Thus in such cases, it is
not exigent to perform the rites all over again. But performing them all over again is in
accordance with the ahwat.
4. A separate Tawaf an-nisa is obligatory for Hajj and for
QUESTION 1: A person has forgotten to perform tawaf
an-nisa for Umrah Mufradah and has become Muhrim for 'Umrah Tamattu'. Should he perform
the forgotten tawaf an-nisa before or after 'Umrah Tamattu' rites? ANSWER: He can perform
it after the Tamattu' rites. If tawaf an-nisa is delayed it would bear adverse impacts and
the Hajj will not suffice. QUESTION 2: A person who has not performed the Tawaf an-nisa of
Umrah Mufradah is to carry out the Hajj al-1frad subsequently. Would tawaf an-nisa of the
Hajj al-1frad suffice for him or not? ANSWER: It will not suffice.
OVERNIGHT IN MINA
1. It is obligatory for the pilgrims to rpend the nights
preceding the 11th and 12th of Dhul H1jjah in Mina. That is to say, they should stay
there from sunset until midnight or from midnight tntil sunrise. Those who hold vigil in
Makkah and engage in worship until the morning without doing anything else other than what
is exigent (such as eating `nd drinking as needed, and renewing the wudhu) do not have to
spend the nights preceding the 11th and the 12th in Mina.
2. Remaining in Mina for the said three nights could
extend from the evening until midnight or from midnight until sunrise. 3. Staying
overnight in Mina is an act of worship and should he performed with pure intention for the
satisfaction of Almighty Allah.
4. One who abstains from remaining in Mina on the nights
which are obligatory should sacrifice one sheep for each night he misses.
4. Based on precaution, the sacrifice should be offered if
the pilgrim falls to spend the night at Mina either knowingly and deliberately, or
forgetfully and unknowingly.
6. The kaffarah for hunting should be offered in Makkah
during 'Umrah and in Mina during Hajj. Based on precaution, the same should apply to other
instances of kaffarah.
QUESTION 1: What would happen if one stays
overnight in a place other than Mina' Are those 12norant of this precept excused or not?
ANSWER: He should offer a sacrifice. Based on
precaution, there is no difference between those aware and those ignorant of this precept.
QUESTION 2: After performing the threefold rites of
the day of the Eid. a pilgrim wants to go to Makkah to perform the tawafs. But he knows
that if he goes to Makkah he would not be able to spend the first three hours of the
required period in Mina. Should he go to Makkah or not? Does he have to pay kaffarah for
going to Makkah (in this case)?
ANSWER: In this case, there is nothing wrong with
going from Mina to Makkah. c But kaffarah should be given for delay. unless he entirely
spends the second half of the night in Mina.
1. Ramy al-Jamarat should be performed on the days
following nights that are obligatory to be spent in Mina. Ramy al-Jamarat means throwing
pebbles at the three Jamar or the symbolic satans, namely the ones in the front, the
middle, and the rear.
2. The pilgrim should daily throw seven pebbles at each
jamarah. The manner, condition, and obligations of ramy have already been presented in the
previous part on Jamarat al-Aqabah.
3. Pebbles should be thrown from sunrise until sunset on
the morrow of the night the pilgrim spends in Mina. R am y should not be carried out at
4. People with excuses not to perform the ramy during the
day---such as shepherds, sick ones, impotent individuals, and those fearing something such
as the huge crowds---are allowed to perform the ramy on the night of the same day or on
the next night.
5. Ramy should be carried out in order. The front, the
middle, and the rear jamarah should be respectively hit with pebbles.
6. A person who forgets to perform the ramy and leaves
Mina should return and perform the ramy. If he cannot return, he should hire a na'ib. If
the tashriq period has passed, he should return, based on necessary precaution, and
perform ramy or hire a na'ib. He or his na'ib should perform the qadha the following year.
SECONDARY ISSUES RELATED TO
1. Women and their caretakers, as well as weak people, who
are allowed to arrive in Mina from the Mash'ar al-Haram after midnight can engage in ramy
at night, if they have excuses not to perform it during the day. Women are allowed to
engage in ramy at night.
2. Ramy Jamarat can be done from the upper floor, though,
based on recommended precaution (ihtiyat mustahabb), it should be conducted from the
conventional place of the past (ground level).
3. Those who have excuses not to engage in ramy on the day
of the Eid can do so on the preceding or following night of the Eid. If they also have
excuses not to conduct ramy on the 11th of Dhul Hijjah, they can perform the
relevant ramy of the 11th on its night.
QUESTION 1: Can one conduct the ramy at ni2ht
without having any excuses? If ramy at night is correct, does it involve a sin? Likewise,
although delay in Dhibh on the day of Eid al-Qurban is aright, does it involve a sin?
ANSWER: Ramy cannot be done at night without an
excuse. If one does not conduct ramy during the day without having a valid excuse, he
would be committing a sin. Likewise, based on the ahwat, if he deliberately delays the
Dhibh and does not perform it on the day of the Eid, he would be committing a sin, though
his Dhibh would be correct.
QUESTION 2: Can one throw the pebbles at the cement
made part of the column?
ANSWER: If the cement-made part is conventionally
regarded as a constituent of the column (jamarah), ramy would be correct.
QUESTION 3: Due to overcrowding and possible
dangers, is it possible to bring the women from Mash'ar to Mina after the midnight of the
10th of Dhul Hijjah, take them to jamarah 'Aqabah on the same night for ramy, return
them to the tents, and again take them to the Jamarat close to the sunset on the 11th to
perform the ramy of both the 11th and the 12th on the night of the 12th?
ANSWER: After Wuquf in Mash'ar and arrival in Mina,
women can perform ramy jamarah al-Aqabah on the night before Eid al-Qurban. But they could
perform the ramy on the 11th and the 12th at night, only if they have excuses not to
perform them during the day.
1. One has the option of qasr and itmam for the daily
prayers all over the two holy cities of Makkah and Madinah. Apparently, the precept
applies to the two cities as they stand, without any distinction between their former and
new districts. But, based on the ahwat, in this case, one should suffice with the limits
of the past Makkah and Madinah or rather the Masjidayn Sharifayn (The Masjid al-Haram in
Makkah and the Masjid an-Nabi in Madinah).
2. If due to an excuse---such as illness---a pilgrim has
failed to take off his stitched clothes in order to enter the state of ihram, he should
make niyyah for 'Umrah and/or Hajj and pronounce the labbayk at the Miqat or areas
parallel to it. This would suffice. Whenever he is relieved of the excuse, he should
remove the stitched clothes and enter the state of ihram. He, however, does not have to
return to Miqat, but, based on ihtiyat wajib, he should offer a sheep as 148 sacrifice for
having worn stitched clothes.
3. Kaffarah should be given to the poor and the needy.
4. A person who made intention for iqamah 'ashrah in
Makkah retains his intention upon going to 'Arafat and
Mina and returning. His Prayer would be itmam at all these sites.
QUESTION 1: Should prayer be performed all over
again if a person has engaged in istidarah prayer in the Masjid al-Haram such that he
faced the congregation prayer leader or stood on his sides?
ANSWER: There is no need to perform it all over
again and it is Permissible.
QUESTION 2. In Purifying the Masjid al-Haram, the
nijasah is removed and it is then washed with water. Qaleel water is used to wash each
-side and one becomes aware of the nijasah of the entire Masjid. Can one engage in sajdah
on those stones due to distress or difficulty or some other reason?
ANSWER: One cannot gain awareness (about this
issue) and should disregard any doubt that may arise.
QUESTION 3: A pilgrim, after performing all the
rites of Umrah and Hajj, realised that his wudhu was null and void. Would his Hajj be
considered correct if he makes provisions for the tawafs and prayer? Supposing that his
Hajj would become invalidate, how should he be relieved of ihram, and what duty does he
ANSWER: Yes, by making provisions for the tawafs and the prayer his Hajj would